In this project, we have implemented following : Created BPSK and QPSK communication model on MATLAB. 2. modulated a randomly generated binary signal and demodulating the received signal which contains modulated signal and Gaussian noise. 3. plotted the SNR and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of both of the methods. QPSK Modulation and Demodulation clc; clear all; … Continue reading BPSK and QPSK Modulation based Communication Model
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Introduction This project has an aim to design an op-amp circuit whose gain is programmable using a TTL signal (1 bit). In particular gain =-1 for A=0 and gain=+1 for A=1. For doing this project you must have basic knowledge about TTL, can make gates using transistors, Analog switch, and inverting/non-inverting configurations of op-amp. amplifier … Continue reading Programmable Gain Amplifier
The cascode is a two-stage amplifier that consists of a common-emitter stage feeding into a common-base stage. Compared to a single amplifier stage, this combination may have one or more of the following characteristics: higher input–output isolation, higher input impedance, high output impedance, higher bandwidth. We would make a CE Amplifier and a CE-CB Cascode … Continue reading CE-CB Cascode Amplifiers
Amplifier has a wide range of applications in real life devices such as Audio Amplifiers in your electric guitar, Analog to Digital Converters in your cell phone's communication network, hearing aids and many more. In this project a basic understanding of CE amplifier design and the gain and bandwidth dependencies are covered upon. Step 1: … Continue reading 2 Stage Amplifiers
Beta is sometimes referred to as hFE which is the transistors forward current gain in the common emitter configuration. Beta has no units as it is a fixed ratio of the two currents, Ic and Ib so a small change in the Base current will cause a large change in the Collector current. This project is a measuring unit for the beta value of a npn transistor
Ever imagined how your keyboard takes input and how that data is stored! This project is a smaller version of data entry and storage. An elaborate explanation of how the signal from the keys, clock effect the memory elements(flip flops). Block Diagram 1. Input Device Asa binary 4 bit input device, there are only 2 push … Continue reading 4bit Serial Input and Storage Device